Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881


Section
Section Title
  Introduction
  Preamble

Chapter I           PRELIMINARY
  1 Short title View Judgements
  2 Repeal of enactments View Judgements
  3 Interpretation clause View Judgements

Chapter II           OF NOTES, BILLS AND CHEQUES
  4 Promissory note View Judgements
  5 Bill of exchange View Judgements
  6 Cheque View Judgements
  7 Drawer, Drawer View Judgements
  8 Holder View Judgements
  9 Holder in due course View Judgements
  10 Payment in due course View Judgements
  11 Inland instrument View Judgements
  12 Foreign instrument View Judgements
  13 Negotiable instrument View Judgements
  14 Negotiation View Judgements
  15 Endorsement View Judgements
  16 Endorsement in blank and in full-Endorsee View Judgements
  17 Ambiguous instruments View Judgements
  18 Where amount is stated differently in figures and words View Judgements
  19 Instruments payable on demand View Judgements
  20 Inchoate stamped instruments View Judgements
  21 At sight, On presentment, After sight View Judgements
  22 Maturity View Judgements
  23 Calculating maturity of bill or note payable so many months after date or sight View Judgements
  24 Calculating maturity of bill or note payable so many days after date or sight View Judgements
  25 When day of maturity is a holiday View Judgements

Chapter III           PARTIES TO NOTES, BILLS AND CHEQUES
  26 Capacity to make, etc., promissory notes, etc. View Judgements
  27 Agency View Judgements
  28 Liability of agent signing View Judgements
  29 Liability of legal representative signing View Judgements
  30 Liability of drawer View Judgements
  31 Liability of drawer of cheque View Judgements
  32 Liability of maker of note and acceptor of bill View Judgements
  33 Only drawer can be acceptor except in need or for honor View Judgements
  34 Acceptance by several drawers not partners View Judgements
  35 Liability of endorser View Judgements
  36 Liability of prior parties to holder in due course View Judgements
  37 Maker, drawer and acceptor principals View Judgements
  38 Prior party a principal in respect of each subsequent party View Judgements
  39 Surety ship View Judgements
  40 Discharge of endorser's liability View Judgements
  41 Acceptor bound, although endorsement forged View Judgements
  42 Acceptance of bill drawn in fictitious name View Judgements
  43 Negotiable instrument made, etc., without consideration View Judgements
  44 Partial absence or failure of money-consideration View Judgements
  45 Partial failure of consideration not consisting of money View Judgements
  45A Holder's right to duplicate of lost bill View Judgements

Chapter IV           OF NEGOTIATION
  46 Delivery View Judgements
  47 Negotiation by delivery View Judgements
  48 Negotiation by endorsements View Judgements
  49 Conversion of endorsement in blank into endorsement in full View Judgements
  50 Effect of endorsement View Judgements
  51 Who may negotiate View Judgements
  52 Endorser who excludes his own liability or make it conditional View Judgements
  53 Holder deriving title from holder in due course View Judgements
  54 Instrument endorsed in blank View Judgements
  55 Conversion of endorsement in blank into endorsement in full View Judgements
  56 Endorsement for part of sum due View Judgements
  57 Legal representative cannot by delivery only negotiate instrument View Judgements
  58 Instrument obtained by unlawful means or for unlawful consideration View Judgements
  59 Instrument acquired after dishonor or when overdue Accommodation note or bill View Judgements
  60 Instrument negotiable till payment or satisfaction View Judgements

Chapter V           OF PRESENTMENT
  61 Presentment for acceptance View Judgements
  62 Presentment of promissory note for sight View Judgements
  63 Drawer's time for deliberation View Judgements
  64 Presentment for payment View Judgements
  65 Honors for presentment View Judgements
  66 Presentment for payment of instrument payable after date or sight View Judgements
  67 Presentment for payment of promissory note payable by instalments View Judgements
  68 Presentment for payment of instrument payable at specified place and not elsewhere View Judgements
  69 Instrument payable at specified place View Judgements
  70 Presentment where no exclusive place specified View Judgements
  71 Presentment when maker, etc, has no known place of business or residence View Judgements
  72 Presentment of cheque to charge drawer View Judgements
  73 Presentment of cheque to charge any other person View Judgements
  74 Presentment of instrument payable on demand View Judgements
  75 Presentment by or to agent, representative of deceased, or assignee of insolvent View Judgements
  75A Excuse for delay in presentment for acceptance or payment View Judgements
  76 When presentment unnecessary View Judgements
  77 Liability of banker for negligently dealing with bill presented for payment View Judgements

Chapter VI           OF PAYMENT AND INTEREST
  78 To whom payment should be made View Judgements
  79 Interest when rate specified View Judgements
  80 Interest when no rate specified View Judgements
  81 Delivery of instrument on payment or indemnity in case of loss View Judgements

Chapter VII           OF DISCHARGE FROM LIABILITY ON NOTES, BILLS AND CHEQUES
  82 Discharge from liability View Judgements
  83 Discharge by allowing drawer more than forty-eight hours to accept View Judgements
  84 When cheque not duly presented and drawer damaged thereby View Judgements
  85 Cheque payable to order View Judgements
  85A Drafts drawn by one branch of a bank on another payable to order View Judgements
  86 Parties not consenting discharge by qualified or limited acceptance View Judgements
  87 Effect of material alteration View Judgements
  88 Acceptor or endorser bound not withstanding previous alteration View Judgements
  89 Payment of instrument on which alteration is not apparent View Judgements
  90 Extinguishments of rights of action on bill in acceptor's hand View Judgements

Chapter VIII           Of NOTICE OF DISHONOR
  91 Dishonor by non-acceptance View Judgements
  92 Dishonor by non-payment View Judgements
  93 By and to whom notice should be give View Judgements
  94 Mode in which notice may be give View Judgements
  95 Party receiving must transmit notice of dishonor View Judgements
  96 Agent for presentment View Judgements
  97 When party to whom notice given is dead View Judgements
  98 When notice of dishonor is unnecessary View Judgements

Chapter IX           NO NOTING AND PROTEST
  99 Noting View Judgements
  100 Protest View Judgements
  101 Contents of protest View Judgements
  102 Notice of protest View Judgements
  103 Protest for non-payment after dishonor by non-acceptance View Judgements
  104 Protest of foreign bills View Judgements
  104A When noting equivalent to protest View Judgements

Chapter X           OF REASONABLE TIME
  105 Reasonable time View Judgements
  106 Reasonable time of giving notice of dishonor View Judgements
  107 Reasonable time for transmitting such notice View Judgements

Chapter XI           OF ACCEPTANCE AND PAYMENT FOR HONOR AND REFERENCE IN CASE OF NEED
  108 Acceptance for honor View Judgements
  109 How acceptance for honor must be made View Judgements
  110 Acceptance not specifying for whose honor it is made View Judgements
  111 Liability of acceptor for honor View Judgements
  112 When acceptor for honor may be charged View Judgements
  113 Payment for honor View Judgements
  114 Right of payer for honor View Judgements
  115 Drawee in case of need View Judgements
  116 Acceptance and payment without protest View Judgements

Chapter XII           OF COMPENSATION
  117 Rules as to compensation View Judgements

Chapter XIII           SPECIAL RULES OF EVIDENCE
  118 Presumption as to negotiable instruments of consideration View Judgements
  119 Presumption on proof of protes View Judgements
  120 Estoppels against denying original validity of instrument View Judgements
  121 Estoppels against denying capacity of payee of indorse View Judgements
  122 Estoppels against denying signature or capacity of prior party View Judgements

Chapter XIV           OF CROSSED CHEQUES
  123 Cheque crossed generally View Judgements
  124 Cheque crossed specially View Judgements
  125 Crossing after issue View Judgements
  126 Payment of cheque crossed generally/specially View Judgements
  127 Payment of cheque crossed specially more than once View Judgements
  128 Payment in due course of crossed cheque View Judgements
  129 Payment of crossed cheque out of due coruse View Judgements
  130 Cheque-bearing not negotiable View Judgements
  131 Non-liability of banker receiving payment of cheque View Judgements
  131A Application of Chapter to drafts View Judgements

Chapter XV           OF BILLS IN SETS
  132 Set bills. View Judgements
  133 Holder of first acquired part entitled to all View Judgements

Chapter XVI           OF INTERNATIONAL LAW
  134 Law governing liability of maker, acceptor or endorser of foreign instrument View Judgements
  135 Law of place of payment governs dishonor View Judgements
  136 Instrument made, etc., out of India, but in accordance with the law of India View Judgements
  137 Presumption as to foreign law View Judgements

Chapter XVII           OF PENALTIES IN CASE OF DISHONOR OF CERTAIN CHEQUE FOR INSUFFICIENCY OF FUNDS IN THE ACCOUNTS
  138 Dishonor of cheque for insufficiency, etc, of funds in the account View Judgements
  139 Presumption in favour of holder View Judgements
  140 Defense which may not be allowed in any prosecution under section 138 View Judgements
  141 Offences by companies View Judgements
  142 Cognizance of offences View Judgements
  143 Power of Court to try cases summarily View Judgements
  144 Mode of service of summons. View Judgements
  145 Evidence on affidavit. View Judgements
  146 Bank's slip prima facie evidence of certain facts. View Judgements
  147 Offences to be compoundable. View Judgements
  SCHEDULE Repealed View Judgements



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