(See Rule 12)
Use of generally accepted accounting principles
1. Generally accepted accounting principles refers to the recogni-zed consensus or substantial authoritative support within a country at a particular time as to which economic resources and obligations shall be recorded as assets and liabilities, which changes in assets and liabilities should be recorded, how the assets and liabilities and changes in them should be measured, what information should be disclosed and how it should be disclosed, and which financial statements should be prepared. These standards may be broad guidelines of general application as well as detailed practices and procedures.
Notes to rules
Note to Rule 2
In Rule 2(2)(v), for the purposes of these rules, one person shall be deemed to control another when the former is legally or operationally in a position to exercise restraint or direction over the latter.
Note to Rule 4
Price actually paid or payable
The price actually paid or payable is the total payment made or to be made by the buyer to or for the benefit of the seller for the imported goods. The payment need not necessarily take the form of a transfer of money. Payment may be made by way of letters of credit or negotiable instruments. Payment may be made directly or indirectly. An example of an indirect payment would be the settlement by the buyer, whether in whole or in part, of a debt owed by the seller.
Activities undertaken by the buyer on his own account, other than those for which an adjustment is provided in Rule 9, are not considered to be an indirect payment to the seller, even though they might be regarded as of benefit to the seller. The costs of such activities shall not, therefore, be added to the price actually paid or payable in determining the value of imported goods.
The value of imported goods shall not include the following charges or costs, provided that they are distinguished from the price actually paid or payable for the imported goods:
(a) Charges for construction, erection, assembly, maintenance or technical assistance, undertaken after importation on imported goods such as industrial plant, machinery or equipment;
(b) The cost of transport after importation;
(c) Duties and taxes in India.
The price actually paid or payable refers to the price for the imported goods. Thus the flow of dividends or other payments from the buyer to the seller that do not relate to the imported goods are not part of the customs value.
Among restrictions which would not render a price actually paid or payable unacceptable are restrictions which do not substantially affect the value of the goods. An example of such restrictions would be the case where a seller requires a buyer of automobiles not to sell or exhibit them prior to a fixed date which represents the beginning of a model year.
If the sale or price is subject to some condition or consideration for which a value cannot be determined with respect to the goods being valued, the transaction value shall not be acceptable for customs purposes. Some examples of this include :
(a) The seller establishes the price of the imported goods on condition that the buyer will also buy other goods in specified quantities;
(b) the price of the imported goods is dependent upon the price or prices at which the buyer of the imported goods sells other goods to the seller of the imported goods;
(c) the price is established on the basis of a form of payment extraneous to the imported goods, such as where the imported goods are semi-finished goods which have been provided by the seller on condition that he will receive a specified quantity of the finished goods.
However, conditions or considerations relating to the production or marketing of the imported goods shall not result in rejection of the transaction value. For example, the fact that the buyer furnishes the seller with engineering and plans undertaken in India shall not result in rejection of the transaction value for the purposes of Rule 4. Likewise, if the buyer undertakes on his own account, even though by agreement with the seller, activities relating to the marketing of the imported goods, the value of these activities is not part of the value of imported goods nor shall such activities result in rejection of the transaction value.
1.Rule 4(3)(a) and Rule 4(3)(b) provide different means of establishing the acceptability of a transaction value.
2.Rule 4(3)(a) provides that where the buyer and the seller are related, the circumstances surrounding the sale shall be examined and the transaction value shall be accepted as the value of imported goods provided that the relationship did not influence the price. It is not intended that there should be an examination of the circumstances in all cases where the buyer and the seller are related. Such examination will only be required where there are doubts about the acceptability of the price. Where the proper officer of customs has no doubts about the acceptability of the price, it should be accepted without requesting further information from the importer. For example, the proper officer of customs may have previously examined the relationship, or he may already have detailed information concerning the buyer and the seller, and may already be satisfied from such examination or information that the relationship did not influence the price.
3.Where the proper officer of customs is unable to accept the transaction value without further inquiry, he should give the importer an opportunity to supply such further detailed information as may be necessary to enable him to examine the circumstances surrounding the sale. In this context, the proper officer of customs should be prepared to examine relevant aspects of the transaction, including the way in which the buyer and seller organize their commercial relations and the way in which the price in question was arrived at, in order to determine whether the relationship influenced the price. Where it can be shown that the buyer and seller, although related under the provisions of Rule 2(2), buy from and sell to each other as if they were not related, this would demonstrate that the price had not been influenced by the relationship. As an example of this, if the price had been settled in a manner consistent with the normal pricing practices of the industry in question or with the way the seller settles prices for sales to buyers who are not related to him, this would demonstrate that the price had not been influenced by the relationship. As a further example, where it is shown that the price is adequate to ensure recovery of all costs plus a profit which is representative of the firm's overall profit realized over a representative period of time (e.g., on an annual basis) in sales of goods of the same class or kind, this would demonstrate that the price had not been influenced.
4.Rule 4(3) (b) provides an opportunity for the importer to demonstrate that the transaction value closely approximates to a test value previously accepted by the proper officer of customs and is therefore acceptable under the provisions of rule 4. Where a test under rule 4(3)(b) is met, it is not necessary to examine the question of influence under rule 3(a). If the proper officer of customs has already, sufficient information to be satisfied, without further detailed inquiries, that one of the tests provided in rule 4(3)(b) has been met, there is no reason for him to require the importer to demonstrate that the test can be met. In rule 4(3)(b) the term unrelated buyers means buyers who are not related to the seller in any particular case.
A number of factors must be taken into consideration in determining whether one value closely approximates to another value. These factors include the nature of the imported goods, the nature of the industry itself, the season in which the goods are imported, and whether the difference in values is commercially significant. Since these factors may vary from case to case, it would be impossible to apply a uniform standard such as a fixed percentage, in each case. For example, a small difference in value in a case involving one type of goods could be unacceptable while a large difference in a case involving another type of goods might be acceptable in determining whether the transaction value closely approximates to the test values set forth in rule 4(3)(b).
Notes to rule 5
1.In applying rule 5, the proper officer of customs shall, wherever possible, use a sale of identical goods at the same commercial level and in substantially the same quantities as the goods being valued. Where no such sale is found, a sale of identical goods that takes place under any one of the following three conditions may be used :
(a) a sale at the same commercial level but in different quantities;
(b) a sale at a different commercial level but in substantially the same quantities; or
(c) a sale at a different commercial level and in different quantities.
2.Having found a sale under any one of these three conditions adjustments will then be made, as the case may be, for :
(a) quantity factors only;
(b) commercial level factors only; or
(c) both commercial level and quantity factors.
3.For the purposes of rule 5, the transaction value of identical imported goods means a value, adjusted as provided for in rule 5(1 )(b) and (c) and rule 5(2), which has already been accepted under rule 4.
4.A condition for adjustment because of different commercial levels or different quantities is that such adjustment, whether it leads to an increase or a decrease in the value, be made only on the basis of demonstrated evidence that clearly establishes the reasonableness and accuracy of the adjustment, e.g. valid price lists containing prices referring to different levels or different quantities. As an example of this, if the imported goods being valued consist of a shipment of 10 units and the only identical imported goods for which a transaction value exists involved a sale of 500 units, and it is recognised that the seller grants quantity discounts, the required adjustment may be accomplished by resorting to the seller's price list and using that price applicable to a sale of 10 units. This does not require that a sale had to have been made in quantities of 10 as long as the price list has been established as being bona fide through sales at other quantities. In the absence of such an objective measure, however, the determination of a value under the provisions of rule 5 is not appropriate.
Note to rule 6
1.In applying rule 6, the proper officer of customs shall, wherever possible, use a sale of similar goods at the same commercial level and is substantially the same quantities as the goods being valued. For the purpose of rule 6, the transaction value of similar imported goods means the value of imported goods, adjusted as provided for in rule 6(2) which has already been accepted under rule 4.
2.All other provisions contained in note to rule 5 shall mutatis mutandis also apply in respect of similar goods.
Note to Rule 7
1.The term unit price at which ... goods are sold in the greatest aggregate quantity means the price at which the greatest number of units is sold in sales to persons who are not related to the persons from whom they buy such goods at the first commercial level after importation at which such sales take place.
2.As an example of this, goods are sold from a price list which grants favourable unit prices for purchases made in larger quantities.
Sale quantity Unit price Number of sales Total quantity sold at each price
1-10 units 100 10 sales of 5 units, 5 sales of 3 units 65
11-25 units 95 3 sales of 11 units 55
Over 25 units 90 1 sale of 30 units, 1 sale of 50 units 80
The greatest number of units sold at a price is 80, therefore, the unit price in the greatest aggregate quantity is 90.
3.As another example of this, two sales occur. In the first sale 500 units are sold at a price of 95 currency units each. In the second sale 400 units are sold at a price of 90 currency units each. In this example, the greatest number of units sold at a particular price is 500, therefore, the unit price in the greatest aggregate quantity is 95.
4.A third example would be the following situation where various quantities are sold at various prices.
Sale quantity Unit price
40 units 100
30 units 90
15 units 100
50 units 95
25 units 105
35 units 90
5 units 100
Total quantity sold Unit price
In this example, the greatest number of units sold at a particular price is 65, therefore, the unit price in the greatest aggregate quantity is 90.
5.Any sale in India, as described in paragraph 1 above to a person who supplies directly or indirectly free of charge or at reduced cost for use in connection with the production and sale for export of the imported goods any of the elements specified in rule 9(1)(b), should not be taken into account in establishing the unit price for the purpose of rule 7.
6.It should be noted that profit and general expenses referred to in rule 7(1) should be taken as a whole. The figure for the purpose of this deduction should be determined on the basis of information supplied by or on behalf of the importer unless his figures are inconsistent with those obtaining in sales in India, of imported goods of the same class or kind. Where the importer's figures are inconsistent with such figures, the amount for profit and general expenses may be based upon relevant information other than that supplied by or on behalf of the importer.
7.The general expenses include the direct and indirect costs of marketing the goods in question.
8.Local taxes payable by reason of the sale of the goods for which a deduction is not made under the provisions of rule 7(1)(iii) shall be deducted under the provisions of rule 7(1)(i).
9.In determining either the commissions or the usual profits and general expenses under the provisions of rule 7(1), the question whether certain goods are of the same class or kind as other goods must be determined on a case-by-case basis by reference to the circumstances involved. Sales in India, of the narrowest group or range of imported goods of the same class or kind, which includes the goods being valued, for which the necessary information can be provided, should be examined. For the purposes of rule 7 goods of the same class or kind includes goods imported from the same country as the goods being valued as well as goods imported from other countries.
10.For the purposes of rule 7(2) the earliest date shall be the date by which sales of the imported goods or of identical or similar imports, goods are made in sufficient quantity to establish the unit price.
11.Where the method in rule 7(3) is used, deductions made for the value added by further processing shall be based on objective and quantifiable data relating to the cost of such work. Accepted industry formulas, receipes, met out of construction, and other industry practices would form the basis of the calculations.
12.It is recognized that the method of valuation provided for in rule 7(3) would normally not be applicable when, as a result of the further processing, the imported goods lose their identity. However there can be instances where, although the identity of the imported goods is lost, the value added by the processing can be determined accurately without unreasonable difficulty. On the other hand there can also be instances where the imported goods maintain their identity but form such a minor element in the goods sold in the country of importation that the use of this valuation method would be unjustified. In view of the above, each situation of this type must be considered on a case-by-case basis.
Note to rule 8
1.Value of imported goods determined under the provisions of rule 8 should, the greatest extent possible, be based on previously determined customs values.
2.The methods of valuation to be employed under rule 8 may be those laid down in rules 4 to 7, inclusive, but a reasonable flexibility in the application of such methods would be in conformity with the aims and provisions of rule 8.
3.Some examples of reasonable flexibility are as follows :
(a)Identical goods - The requirement that the identical goods should be imported at or about the same time as the goods being valued could be flexibly interpreted; identical imported goods produced in a country other than the country of exportation of the goods being valued could be the basis for customs valuation; customs values of identical imported goods already determined under the provisions of rule 7 could be used.
(b)Similar goods - The requirement that the similar goods should be imported at or about the same time as the goods being valued could be flexibly interpreted; similar imported goods produced in a country other than the country of exportation of the goods being valued could be the basis for customs valuation; customs values of similar imported goods already determined under the provisions of rule 7 could be used.
(c)Deductive method - The requirement that the goods shall have been sold in the condition as imported in rule 7(1) could be flexibly interpreted; the ninety days requirement could be administered, flexibly.
Note to rule 9
In rule 9(1)(a)(i), the term buying commissions means fees paid by an importer to his agent for the service of representing him abroad in the purchase of the goods being valued.
1.There are two factors involved in the apportionment of the elements specified in rule 9(1)(b)(ii) to the imported goods - the value of the element itself and the way in which that value is to be apportioned to the imported goods. The apportionment of these elements should be made in a reasonable manner appropriate to the circumstances and in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.
2.Concerning the value of the element, if the importer acquires the element from a seller not related to him at a given cost, the value of the element is that cost. If the element was produced by the importer or by a person relates to him, its value would be the cost of producing it. If the element had been previously used by the importer, regardless of whether it had been acquired or produced by such importer, the original cost of acquisition or production would have to be adjusted downward to reflect its use in order to arrive at the value of the element.
3.Once a value has been determined for the element it is necessary to apportion that value to the imported goods. Various possibilities exist. For example, the value might be apportioned to the first shipment if the importer wishes to pay duty on the entire value at one time. As another example, the importer may request that the value be apportioned over the number of units produced up to the time of the first shipment. As a further example, he may request that the value be apportioned over the entire anticipated production where contracts or firm commitments exist for that production. The method of apportionment used will depend upon the documentation provided by the importer.
4.As an illustration of the above, an importer provides the producer with a mould to be used in the production of the imported goods and contracts with him to buy 10,000 units. By the time of arrival of the first shipment of 1,000 units, the producer has already produced 4,000 units. The importer may request the proper officer of customs to apportion the value of the mould over 1,000 units, 4,000 units of 10,000 units.
1.Additions for the elements specified in rule 9(1)(b)(iv) should be based on objective and quantifiable data. In order to minimise the burden for both the importer and proper officer of customs in determining the values to be added, data readily available in the buyer's commercial record system should be used in so far as possible.
2.For those elements supplied by the buyer which were purchased or leased by the buyer, the addition would be the cost of the purchase or the lease. No addition shall be made for those elements available in the public domain, other than the cost of obtaining copies of them.
3.The case with which it may be possible to calculate the values to be added will depend on a particular firm's structure and management practice, as well as its accounting methods.
4.For example, it is possible that a firm which imports a variety of products from several countries maintains the records of its design centre outside the country of importation in such a way as to show accurately the costs attributable to a given product. In such cases, a direct adjustment may appropriately be made under the provisions of rule 9.
5.In another case, a firm may carry the cost of the design centre outside the country of importation as a general overhead expense without allocation to specific products. In this instance, an appropriate adjustment could be made under the provisions of rule 9 with respect to the imported goods by apportioning total design centre costs over total production benefiting from the design centre and adding such apportioned cost on a unit basis to imports.
6.Variations in the above circumstances will, of course, require different factors to be considered in determining the proper method of allocation.
7.In cases where the production of the element in question involves a number of countries and over a period of time, the adjustment should be limited to the value actually added to that element outside the country of importation.
1.The royalties and licence fees referred to in rule 9(1)(c) may include among other things, payments in respects to patents, trademarks and copyrights. However, the charges for the right to reproduce the imported goods in the country of importation shall not be added to the price actually paid or payable for the imported goods in determining the customs value.
2.Payments made by the buyer for the right to distribute or resell the imported goods shall not be added to the price actually paid or payable for the imported goods if such payments are not a condition of the sale for export to the country of importation of the imported goods.
Where objective and quantifiable data do not exist with regard to the additions required to be made under the provisions of rule 9, the transaction value cannot be determined under the provisions of rule 4. As an illustration of this, a royalty is paid on the basis of the price in a sale in the importing country of a litre of a particular product that was imported by the Kilogram and made up into a solution after importation. If the royalty is based partially on the imported goods and partially on other factor, which have nothing to do with the imported goods (such as when the imported goods are mixed with domestic ingredients and are no longer separately identifiable, or when the royalty cannot be distinguished from special financial arrangements between the buyer and the seller), it would be inappropriate to attempt to make an addition for the royalty. However, if the amount of this royalty is based only on the imported goods and can be readily quantified, an addition to the price actually paid or payable can be made.
#LawyerServices #Section #Act #Law #Statute #IndianLaw #Kanoon